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The bit depth and bit rate is a way to say in words, how we transform the analog signal, to digital.
Long story short, Sample rate is the number of audio samples a computer records a given signal (vocals or guitar etc.) per second. It’s time relative. For example 44.1kHz is equal to 44,100 samples of audio recorded every second.
The human ear is to perceive a maximum range between 20Hz to 22.5kHz. That is the range of sound we can hear. Anything lower you feel and anything higher you just won’t hear. In the digital domain we double that frequency and we have an excellent representation of our analogue sound which is 44.100Hz / 44.1KHz.
44.1kHz - Sample rate for CD
48kHz - Sample Rate for Video
88.2kHz - Twice the sample rate for CD
96kHz - Twice the sample rate for video
176.4kHz - High quality HD audio
192kHz - Highest quality HD audio
The bigger the sample rate the bigger the data.
There is no need for audio application to use 48Khz.
The bit rate, 16 or 24, the how precise the sample can it be. Hense, how many bits / sample we have, and it directly corresponds to the resolution of each sample. 16 is the normal and HiFi signal used for commercial products like CDs. 24 is for DVD's and Bluray applications, although in studio recordings 44.1/24 is commonly use in order to have more high resolution recordings of your audio.
That's it for me in order to help you guys in your questions.
Professional Mixing and Mastering Engineer
BA (Hons) Audio and Music Technology
Originally posted by iliasgogakis on Sat 02 Jan, 2016
Nicely worded, Ilias. A 32 bit answer, I think ;)
Originally posted by MonkeyC on Sat 02 Jan, 2016
In my days of audio science in electronics, you couldn't recreate a sine wave of 20khz from an analogue source. At 44.1khz you only got 2 sample points at best and maybe a few more at the higher sample rates. Anything converted using compression (i.e. mpa, mp3) is lossy like a jpeg image. Energy is removed from the high end content like a spectral pump of frequency bands. It fools the ears into sounding good until you lower the bitrate, then it starts sounding like your listening inside a tin can. What's important is the bit depth rate of 16,24,32 bits per sample to reduce aliasing noise when applying effects and gain in a daw. Also if you use effects for vocal or instrument manipulation like melodyne, elastic audio for time and pitch correction, its always best to apply them against dry tracks at the start of an effect chain. before adding reverb or gain effects. Wet tracks create harmonics and overtones that may produce inadvertent sounds like warble and tin can sounds... Cheers!
Originally posted by Sterling on Sat 02 Jan, 2016
This is an awesome conversation going on here. For my two cents. I always keep the digital format that is used to present audio to the consumer. Which is 44.1 at 16 bits for CD. Now, we also have to deal with streaming services, and who knows what they do to the audio to be the best format for them, not the consumer. That's what I mix at unless asked to do something different. My main reason is that the dithering convertors can vastly alter the final product. Sometimes overall and sometimes it's frequency specific. To date I have not found any software or program that does this with any sense. Some will sound better and others will not. Most of the algorithms either drop the least significant bit or the most or both. In other word you gamble every time you go through a conversion.
That's why I hope for the CD standard formulas for every step of the production. Can we hear it or feel it, that is the question.
I use Apogee outboard gear for my sample and clock rates. I line everything up to one master word-clock. This keeps whatever bit depth or sample rate following the main clock and removes a lot of shuttering and distortion and jitter. By doing this your mix will get to where you want to start much quicker because the audio racks aren't shifting back and forth through out the entire song.
It also gives whatever you're using in the digital realm the chance it needs to playback consistently.
Well, I think Ive muddied water just a bit (pun intended) more. Always follow your ears. They didn't cost you anything and came in your shipping box with you! : - )
Originally posted by tomic on Wed 06 Jan, 2016
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